Pharmacy Express

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Not to be confused with the legitimate Pharmacy Express ( and based in New Zealand,) Pharmacy Express (hereafter referred to in this document as PE) is a very large and sophisticated spamming operation believed to be operated by the Russian criminal spammer Leo Kuvayev, and several of his colleagues and affiliates. These sites have been spamvertised relentlessly to several million email addresses since at least 2004, possibly even longer. Mr. Kuvayev is wanted for several international charges which he has never answered for, including money laundering, child porn and of course illegal spamming. This spam operation has numerous ties to several large-scale Windows viruses and Trojan infections dating back numerous years. The botnets alleged to be behind this operation handle everything from domain registration to zombie infection to probably website hosting and "order" processing. Nobody has ever claimed to have received any quality assured medications upon ordering, so this series of websites is actually considered a credit card fraud operation very similar to Alex Polyakov's My Canadian Pharmacy.

As is the case with My Canadian Pharmacy, numerous pharmacy oversight organizations have fielded several thousand complaints per year regarding this illegal operation. Together with numerous law enforcement agencies they continue to investigate as much as possible regarding the spamming, website setup, DNS setup and alleged order processing of this spam gang. This investigation is ongoing.

PE sites stopped being spammed during the middle portion of 2007, but resurfaced with a completely new design in Feb. 2008. In November 2009, a third iteration was introduced, with a new skin. The spam rate increased alarmingly in September 2010.

PE Logo, 2008
PE Logo, 2007

Current Discussion 2011

Since end November 2010, there have been millions of spams containing links to the Pharmacy Express fraud pharmacy. The criminal nature of the fraud and proof of its false pretenses are clearly documented here.

This operation uses the "redirector" approach. The spammed link has a long, padded format, with extra words in it. Common words that are always present as a "fingerprint" are pfizer and viagra. For example


These links in turn redirect to a "target" domain, to avoid the spammed links getting blacklisted as is common today. The spammer strategy is to hide the actual location of the pharmacy fraud web sites.

Since anti-spam operations will also report the hosting IP address on which illegal web sites are running, this operation takes measures to "bullet-proof" the IPs as well. The target web sites run on a "fast-flux" or rapidly changinge range of host locations. These are a botnet of machines that have been compromised and are running a "reverse proxy" program. The reverse proxy program is a small front-end program that tunnels all request for web pages to hidden back-end servers, providing another level of bullet-proofing.

Anti-spam measures can involve

  1. reporting and getting the spammed redirectors suspended (there are over 2500, and they add more daily)
  2. reporting and getting the target site suspended ( there are hundreds, and they change daily)
  3. reporting and having the hosting IPs cleaned (botnet counts are in the millions)
  4. locating, arresting and prosecuting the perpetrators of the Pharmacy Express fraud

Looking at that that list, the last one is the only effective solution.

Current Discussion 2010

The incidence of this scam increased remarkably in August/September 2010. Domain names followed a recognizable pattern, with domains registered in Russia, and widely spammed. The domains, however, redirected to target sites in order to avoid being detected and blacklisted in spam traps.

Example - would redirect to

Typical name for redirectors registered at REGRU-REG-RIPN are


The target site is Domain Name: FILDRUGS.COM, Registrar: POWER BRAND SOLUTIONS LLC

The November 2009 version sparked a new wave of spamming on Chinese .cn registered domains, embedding an iframe for the site Sample redirection sites are

The 2008/2009 version of PE sites started to be spammed in late-February of 2008 and as mentioned above they feature a totally different design.

2008 spam runs relied on Yahoo search redirections to penetrate spam whitelists and avoid blacklists.

Spamming in 2007 for domains like, and similar, targeted Google's Gmail customers. Most were trapped by Gmail's spam detection and diverted to the spam folder.

You may follow a discussion on PE at the Fight Back forum.

Basic Summary

PE is yet another illegal pharmacy website operation which claims to offer discounted pharmaceuticals to unsuspecting consumers. As with numerous other pharmacy spam operations, nearly every single claim on their website is 100% false. Their sites are not secure, you are not sent anything after ordering on these sites, and among other things your credit card and possibly your identity may be stolen by this website.

Sample of a PE Spam e-mail

Subject: Re: PHxyjARMA



Vniagra 3, 35 
Vnalium 1, 25 
Cnialis 3, 75 
Anmbien 2, 90 


Important: Replace "," with "." in the above link 


Cedric stared at him. Harry saw some of the panic hed been feeling 
since Saturday night flickering in Cedrics gray eyes. 
Are you sure?  Cedric said in a hushed voice.

Another sample

Economize 50% on



Replace "-" with "." in the above link.

Thats not the point!  raged Mr. Weasley. You wait until I tell your
Tell me what?  said a voice behind them.  

Note: The trivial obfuscation of the URL by inserting a comma, hyphen or asterisk is designed to defeat SpamCop's parsing.

Description of Operations

PE homepage, 2010/2011
November 2009, click to enlarge
October 2009, click to enlarge
PE, Feb. 2008
PE, March, 2007

The PE website is a typical pharmaceutical e-commerce site. They claim to offer generic versions of several prescription drugs including Viagra and Cialis. (As stated elsewhere, neither of those drugs have a generic version since as of this writing they are still protected by international patents.)

In many ways this site is similar to the My Canadian Pharmacy family of sites in terms of products offered and pricing, so the reader is directed to read that entry for further basic details regarding the basics of the pharmaceuticals, ordering process, and claims. Most are either completely identical or very slightly different.

As with My Canadian Pharmacy and numerous other illegal / fake pharmacy operations, nearly every single claim on the site is completely false. Their "How To Order" page outlines this series of steps and makes the same claim as MCP sites that "All orders are received via a secure server, to ensure that your sensitive information is kept private and to guarantee you peace of mind."

As we will discover below: this is 100% false.

Operator Identification

It has been alleged for many years that the operator of PE is one Leo Kuvayev, head of a spamming organization known as BadCow and the pharma affiliate program Mailien.

At this writing, Leo Kuvayev was the #2 spammer in the world according to the Spamhaus Rokso listing, second only to Alex Polyakov, who is linked to numerous articles in this wiki.

Leo Kuvayev's ROKSO Listing

In 2009 it was reported that Kuvayev was in prison awaiting trial on a charge of child molestation -

PE has long been linked to the renowned criminal spamming gang known as Yambo Financials, which has ties to several criminal activities including child pornography and credit card fraud. Kuvayev also has ties to a group known as the "Pavka / Artofit" spam gang (Spamhaus ROKSO Link) who have further ties to all manner of illegal activity involving spam, viruses, Trojans, botnets, the creation and distribution of child and bestiality pornography, and of course money laundering and numerous other types of financial fraud.

In August 2010, an anonymous blogger at alleged that this Leo Kuvayev is the same Leonid Aleksandorovich Kuvayev (Леонида Александровича Куваева) jailed in Moscow on 50 counts of raping children from an orphanage. Independent reporter Brian Krebs, formerly a technology columnist for the Washington Post, confirmed numerous details. See also 2011 updates - the Sophos report and an article in the Moscow News, where Kuvayev has partly admitted to the charges of molesting orphan children.

Website Claims

The claims made on the PE sites are virtually identical to those made on most MCP websites, so it is recommended that the reader visit that entry for further details. It lists the same "supporters" (including the appearance of the ubiquitous Better Business Bureau icon) and makes the same claims of security. All patently false.

False pretenses

The web site claims to have a pharmacy license issued by the non-existent "New Zealand Board of Pharmacy". The fake pharmacy license quotes an address at

3 Akoranga Drive, Northcote.
Auckland, New Zealand.

This address does exist, and it is an outlet for a legitimate New Zealand online pharmacy, but it is not PE. The actual New Zealand Pharmacy Direct shop at Akoranga Drive is shown in the picture. It is safe to conclude that PE has decided to use a real address, where a real pharmacy is located, to try to pass themselves off as legitimate.

New Zealand Pharmacy Direct shop
The license that can be viewed from the false PE site has obvious errors.
  1. It is issued by a New Zealand Board of Pharmacy - whereas no such Board exists (New Zealand has a "Pharmacy Council of New Zealand")
  2. It is supposedly issued to PE, but at an address which does not belong to them.
  3. It uses US English spelling for the word "license". No New Zealand certificate would use US spelling - it would be spelled "licence", because New Zealand uses UK English for official documents.
  4. No certification authority would allow grammatical errors in a document, such as The license is required by law to immediately notify the New Zealand Board of Pharmacy ...
  5. The forged certificate infringes the copyright of the legitimate owner, New Zealand's Pharmacy Express

The fake license is shown in the picture.

Fake pharmacy license

Website Structure And Domain Names

The PE site structure is slightly different from that of MCP sites, but in terms of user flow and captured data it is virtually identical. In the time period between November 2006 and January 2007 these sites underwent a structural and functional overhaul from the .NET infrastructure to a PHP / MySQL implementation.

They similarly use public Unix servers to host their websites and images, as well as their DNS servers.

One additional item that greatly separates this spam operation is its sophisticated use of extremely large botnets.

In November, 2006, the security company "F-Secure" posted in their security blog about a recent discovery made while investigating the recent bout of "Warezov" botnet infections. (F-Secure Blog Entry) They noted that the infection Trojan for the Warezov virus was attempting to connect to a specific unpronounceable domain name:

Once the downloader is executed on a computer, it connects to a download URL.
A typical URL would be, for example:


They made a direct connection between the virus distribution URL, the spamvertised URLs, and the website URLs for several PE websites.

This is significant because literally every single PE domain at the time looked like that style of URL:

This had been the case with their domain names for close to three years, indicating a well-entrenched pattern of Windows virus infections, tied to automated domain registrations for PE specifically. Clearly their domain names are automatically named via some automated algorithm using word syllables in random sequence. On any given day, up to 100 such domains were being registered with multiple domain registrars via automated means. They all followed that structure.

Recent Domains and sponsoring registrars

December 2011

Registrar =

August 2011

Registrar is the NIC in the Ukraine

Registrar =

Registrar = eNom Inc, Registration Service Provided By: (suspended)

Registrar = NETLYNX to to to to

Registrar = CV. JOGJACAMP to

Registrar = GODADDY.COM, INC. to


February 2011

Registrar = eNom Inc, Registration Service Provided By:

Note: Some of these have been suspended - placed on status Client Hold, or have had the name servers changed ( & Others were still live in March 2011.

December 2010

Registrar = eNom Inc

September 2010

Registrar = eNom Inc

May, 2010

Fake pharmacy domain and crime sponsoring registrar

  • (Registrar: REALTIME REGISTER BV) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: REALTIME REGISTER BV) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: WEB WERKS INDIA PVT. LTD)
  • (Registrar: DISTRIBUTE IT PTY LTD)
  • (Registrar: GAL COMMUNICATION (COMMUNIGAL) LTD) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: GAL COMMUNICATION (COMMUNIGAL) LTD) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: GAL COMMUNICATION (COMMUNIGAL) LTD) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: GAL COMMUNICATION (COMMUNIGAL) LTD) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: GAL COMMUNICATION (COMMUNIGAL) LTD) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: GAL COMMUNICATION (COMMUNIGAL) LTD) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: GAL COMMUNICATION (COMMUNIGAL) LTD) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: GAL COMMUNICATION (COMMUNIGAL) LTD) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: GAL COMMUNICATION (COMMUNIGAL) LTD) - removed 05/31
  • (Registrar: UK2 GROUP LTD)
  • (Registrar: UK2 GROUP LTD)
  • (Registrar: UK2 GROUP LTD)
  • (Registrar: UK2 GROUP LTD)
  • (Registrar: UK2 GROUP LTD)
  • (Registrar: UK2 GROUP LTD)
  • (Registrar: UK2 GROUP LTD)

Feb. 2008

Spammed url:

Redirects to:

Which loads a frameset featuring:

Site loads all images from

As of Feb 2007 they had switched to shorter domain names. The reasoning for this is unknown. It's possible they might have exhausted all the "syllable" domain names. Starting in December of 2006 the PE domain names began taking on a shorter, more sequential naming convention:

Recent PE sites * * * * * * *

Note: * Removed March 14, 2007

However, notably, their DNS servers still maintain the longer, randomized syllable naming convention. As at Feb 2007, the DNS servers for 22rx, tedrx, lodrx etc were:

The sponsor for the access to these illegal websites is the ICANN accredited PRC Registrar, Beijing Innovative Linkage Technology.

As at March 10, 2007 these name servers no longer worked. New name servers registered again with Beijing Innovative were [] [] 

In April, more new name servers registered were

Chinaemail is aware of the problem, and has even listed in its spam tracking (Jan 2007).

Given that several virus types also use this type of domain name for their command and control, and for installation instructions, it is safe to say that no human being was creating those unique domain names.


Hijacked web sites

These samples were spammed in mid October


Each of these represents a legitimate web site which has been hijacked. An additional html file has been inserted in the server root directory containing code that links to PE site which in turn redirects to like this

<html><head><title>Buy Viagra Online - #1 Online Pharmacy -</title>
<style type="text/css"> a { font-size: 24pt; } </style>
<script type="text/javascript">var a = "";window.location = a;</script></head>
<body><center><h1>#1 Online Pharmacy</h1><br>Online DrugStore<br>
<a href="">Buy Viagra Online</a></center></body></html>

That results in a web page looking like this

Pharmacy Express BVO.jpg


Each URL spammed provided a web page on Microsoft's abused service that redirected to one of a range of spam brands. Each brand represented an illegal web site that indulged in fraud and misrepresentation. It is strongly recommended that visitors do not provide their identity and credit card details on any of these sites. They are run by criminals who use credit cards to order domain names for spamming, or to sell stolen identities within their own "carding" community. PE is one of several brands targeted.

Storm Trojan

As at March 21, 2008, Storm Trojan infected machines were found to be redirecting to four different fake pharmacy sites using the format

For PE, the redirection sites detected were

How to report this spam

The Complainterator is configured to request removal of these fraudulent sites. Add a link to this page as evidence.

Unrelated sites

The legitimate Pharmacy Express

Pharmacy Express, headquartered in New Zealand, which is a division of Pharmacy Direct ( is a legitimate pharmacy. PE, the subject of this evidence, is trying to pose as part of the New Zealand Pharmacy Express.

The New Zealand Pharmacy Express web sites are at and at and the genuine web site is shown in the images to the right (click to expand)

The trademark notice shown on the right establishes that the name "Pharmacy Express" is a registered trademark. It is safe to conclude that the illegitimate PE is infringing on this registered trademark.

Legitimate owner's comments

When contacted for his views of the fake PE operation, the legal owner of the Pharmacy Express trademark in New Zealand stated:

I am the sole director of PHEX LTD which is owned by my family interests including my parents. Phex Ltd trades as Pharmacy Express and Top Brands for Less (both .com and

“Pharmacy Express” and “Top Brands for Less” is a legitimate pharmacy operating as a trading division of Pharmacy Direct North Shore Limited and compliant with NZ law for the operation of a pharmacy.

PHEX LIMITED is the owner of the registered trademarks for Pharmacy Express 314935 and 314936 in classes 4 / 5 and 4 / 35.

The actions of Leo Kuvayev have had a tremendously negative impact on the real and legitimate Pharmacy Express and destroyed our brand value.

The reality is, Pharmacy Express has been operating online since 1997 when it was one of the first pharmacies to go online in NZ (indeed one of the earliest e-commerce sites) and in the last 13 years has served hundreds of thousands of satisfied customers.

We are deeply troubled by the apparently scant regard for our business shown by this individual and completely disillusioned by the lack of teeth from the authorities to deal with this type of fraud and criminal activity.



Pharmacy Express & Top Brands for Less

Shop 36, Fox outlet centre, 3 Akoranga Drive, Northcote, Auckland | | |

The New Zealand real Pharmacy Express
Trademark notice

Related sites


Refer to the captured screen image. In 2011, spammer affiliates who registered with the Mailien spamming program were presented with pharmacy operations to select from. These included


Your Online Pharmacy

In 2007: The same name servers were used to resolve both PE and Your Online Pharmacy sites. For example


These are used to resolve access to

  • PE

Sharing the same IP Address

See: Category:Kuvayev family